Set of technologies allowing to create a third dimension on Medias or display.
Don’t confuse the 3D object and 3D rendering.
An object is said 3D when it is defined according to the three dimension of the space. But an object can be broadcasted on a 2D medium (case of the printing).
3D rendering is a display allowing to simulate a third dimension to the display in order to mislead vision. We also speak about stereoscopic 3D.
There are two types of 3D object broadcast:
• The pre-calculate 3D: this is a movie staging 3D objects, lighting and one (or several) cameras. The movements are determined in advance: the control of the learner is limited. That makes it possible to get very faithful rendering because the calculations are carried out in advance on powerful stations.
• The real time 3D: 3D objects and lighting are placed on the stage. The camera is freely controlled by the learner. The display of the stage is calculated in real time by the learner’s computer. The rendering is usually lower because limited by the computing power of the terminal.
It is possible to get a digital object in three real dimensions:
• By 3D printing
• By a holographic rendering
Solution allowing to put 3D or 2D virtual elements on top of a real picture.
These systems need to acquisition (camera) and restitution (screen) system.
Augmented reality is already used on smartphones and tablets. Many applications already exist (location of point of interest…).
Glasses incorporating the AR (Google Glass) are under development.
The recognition of the environment allowing to embed the relevant information has evolved a lot: it is not necessary anymore to use geometric tags.
The use of the GPS, compass and gyroscope of the smartphones and tablets by the application increase the relevance of the spread information.
There should be not confuse with virtual reality (or reality of synthesis), official term which is a visual, sound and / or haptic immersive interactive computer simulation, real or imaginary environments, like videogames or simulators.
An e-book is an « electronic » or « digital » book that can be consulted / downloaded on computer, tablet, smartphone, reader.
The digital book includes multimedia dimension: text, audio, illustration, animation, video, 3D.
It is also possible to add different degree of interactivity: to display / to hide, zoom, quiz...
The advantage of the e-book is the centralisation of the library and to no print.
It is possible to have additional features: note-taking, adding bookmarks, check-list, highlighting.
There are different size of digital books which are not necessary compatible with all the medium.
The PDF format allows to use Rich Media and interactivity in limited way.
E-learning is a learning method based on the training content provision through electronic medium, generally on the web.
By extension, it also defines interactive multimedia and educational contents created for this learning method.
It is customary to use the term e-learning only for training devices with simple scriptwriting and media coverage.
The learner’s attention facing interactive medium cannot be over 20 minutes. If the module has to go on longer, we must provide a structure allowing to have educational unities limited to 20 minutes (chapter division or sub-modules).
An e-learning can be deployed on CD or on the web. Without LMS, there cannot be centralised tracking.
Other used words:
• Online training
• Distance learning
• CBT Computer Based Training
• WBT Web Based Training
A graphic charter defines the basic rules for the use of graphic signs constituting the visual identity of an entity.
It includes: logo / font / colours / colours variation / rounded graphic elements, angular… / pictures & illustrations… / size and position of elements.
According to the customer and project need, it can be adapted and completed if element are not defined.
The graphic charter is a document provided by the customer.
The creation of a graphic identity / a particular atmosphere for a particular project is common. We call «graphic line» or «artistic direction» the graphic theme of the module, often linked with the subject.
Each training can be:
• Energized by a mascot : creation of a character who goes with the learner all along the module
• Enriched with a red thread: recurring motif integrated to the DA combined with the learner progression in the module (example : roadmap B73, frieze B9E)
Set of devices allowing to integrate touch into a HMI.
These interfaces diversify:
• force feedback controls (steering wheel, joystick)
• touch screen with click back
• haptic arm
HMI is the acronym of Human Machine Interface.
That refers to set of devices allowing interaction between the computer and its user.
Acquisition interfaces: keyboard, mouse, joystick, motion sensor (WiiMote, Kinect...), and microphone.
Rendering Interface: screen, stereoscopic 3D glasses.
Combined interfaces: touch screen, force feedback control.
The glasses said 3D can be of several types:
• 3D glasses (active or passive) which allow to have a 3D rendering come from an external screen.
• Stereoscopic 3D glasses which integrate two screens (one per eye) in order to feign the third dimension.
We talk about stereoscopic and gyroscopic 3D glasses when these integrate a motion detector in order to modify the display according to the head position.
Next revision of the Web HTML language.
Current development version, no « standardized » (finalisation of the spec in 2014).
It allows the direct taken over of the Rich media (audio and video) and the interactive contents.
Any web content made with this language is accessible on PC, tablet and smartphones.
The language is still developing so unstable according to the available technologies for the learners.
The HTML5 is incompatible with the old navigators.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a computer language which describes the presentation of the html pages. The CSS3 norm allows to manage the Responsive Design, i.e the adaptation of the stylesheet of the content to the width of the navigator.
A LMS or “Learning Management System” is an online training platform, allowing the learning path management.
A LCMS or “Learning Content Management System” is an online training platform, allowing the creation and the learning path management.
According to the norm and the used modules, it allows the result recording, the tracking time spent…
Administrator side: learner management, management of training sessions.
Learner side: access to the contents made available to follow his training.
Trainer side: putting on-line / design of learning path, follow-up of learners.
A LMS can integrate a lot of functionalities:
• virtual classes for distance learning sessions
• chat between the learner and the trainer / between the learner
• sharing space / downloads for document sharing, medias...
• presential training management gestion des formations présentielles
Localisation is the adaptation to a content according to a regional / country area. That mainly includes the translation problems.
In addition to translation, localisation can integrate:
• The Broadcast problems heeding the available technologies
• The cultural problems (colours used…)
• The brand problems (logo, graphic charter…)
Localisation is mainly done by outsourcing the media to avoid recompiling the content.
There may be additional constraints with languages say exotics:
• Writing from right to left or from top to bottom
• Units of measure
In opposition of externalisation of Medias, we speak about encapsulation.
Ludification is an addition of a game mechanism in other fields such as learning situations, work situation, ect… to increase the acceptability / passage of information. Other used word: gamification. Serious gaming is the adaptation of an existing game in order to process of a serious topic. Serious gaming most often goes through the addition of extensions developed specifically.
Ludification is not exclusively reserved to the multimedia field.
In e-learning design, media coverage is the phase of design and production of the media: illustrations / animations / videos / voice-over recording… The design is under the responsibility of the educational designer, the production is up to the multimedia team.
The level of media coverage is defined during the offer. The media coverage intervenes once the scriptwriting made.
According to the customer need, to his budget and his available sources, the level of the media coverage can be adapted.
Level 1: no media production (supplied by customers and integrated as such)
Level 2: production of illustrations and simple animations (posting / masking)
Level 3: production of illustrations and 2D complex animations, audio sync, integration of simple video sequences (interview)
Level 4: production of illustration and 3D complex animations, integration of complex video sequences (report)
In the case of a game or a simulator, motor is the part of the software which defines the learner possible actions and the object behaviour (movements, collisions, score...)
By extension, we will talk about motor for the typology of interactions as part of an e-learning.
The complexity of the motor can then go against the ergonomics.
It is appropriate to limit the type of interaction in order to not divert the learner attention of the content.
Rapid learning is a simplified method of e-learning content design for a quick creation and production: it’s about conversion from PowerPoint to Rich media. Rapid-learning allows the integration of Medias as sound, videos, animation flash and evaluation. Some software also allow the integration of animated screenshot.
Speed of conception & production
To focus the learner on the essential
Very short modules (duration: 10 minutes max)
Easy and fast
Mass production of modules starting from existing mediums type PowerPoint
Reduction of costs and production time
Autonomy of the learner
Limited educational opportunities
Risks linked to the speed of conception / production
Content close to information (transmissive) rather than limited Interactivity training
The norm SCORM “Sharable Content Object Reference Model” is a reference model for training broadcasted on the Internet. It allows to create structured educational contents.
It defines a standard for communication between training contents (modules) and platforms on which those are left and made available to the learner (LMS). It is based on pedagogical units or SCO.
The norm AICC “Aviation Industry CBT Committee” is a set of specifications for the content management in a LMS. It is very little used in Europe.
The norm SCORM exists under several versions whose the most used are SCORM1.2 and SCORM2004. SCORM is an evolution of AICC. The norm allows information reading and writing such as: score, time spent, given responses, user preferences…
Environments are not all certified compatible with the standard; we find three levels:
• Compliant: respect of the norm without having been tested.
• Conforming : tested, functional; conform, but without all functionalities being taken over
• Certified: tested and compatible by 100%
Some platforms can managed modules AICC, SCORM1.2 and SCORM2004.
It is possible to make a multi-SCO module.
In e-learning design, scriptwriting is the stage of educational design. It's about defining the narrative mode of the training. Transmissive, participative, active, quirky... It is the job of the educational engineer and the educational designer.
The scriptwriting is only possible once the perimeter and the content of the training perfectly identified.
According to the customer need (budget) and available sources, different levels of scriptwriting, from reintegration of the content provided to the design of a cinematographic scriptwriting in which the learner is in the centre (quest, game…). Most of the time, the educational scenario is a mix of notional contribution, evaluation exercises.
Level 1: not or little scriptwriting (content supplied by the customer)
Level 2: educational scenario mixing notional contribution / formative or summative evaluations
Level 3: Level 2 + cinematographic scriptwriting, integration of a story
Level 4: The learner is in the centre of a cinematographic scriptwriting, principle of quest, game.
Game whose purpose is not entertainment alone but learning. The goal is learners integrates the information / message / through the game. A Serious Game is a tool using new technologies to spread a message by an attractive way. This message can be pedagogical, informative, advertising, communicative or training, while having the playful aspect taken from the classic video game or using simulation.
The game mechanic, in addition to the fun aspect, brings a playful effect to achieve success: the player the player will start again until he gets the reward of victory. This method principally favours the self-learning by the succession of failures, reconsideration and problem solving.
Other used word:
• Advergame (in case of advertising message)
A simulator is a technical device allowing to reproduce in a virtual way the behaviour of a real phenomenon. The learner is entirely immersed himself in a virtual environment to learn to master a real situation.
The degree of realism of the visuals and the physical concepts influences the cost of development. The development of a simulator often goes through the following stage:
• Definition of the graphic universe
• Development of the physic engine (actions of player and reaction of object)
• Integration of scenarios
We also speak about virtual reality.
Ranges can call on other technologies such as:
• Augmented Reality
• Holographic rendering
Recorded spoken voice added as media.
Voice as media adds a dimension to the training. Voice allows to keep the learner’s attention longer. However, the text of the voice must be different from the one on the screen while keeping the same meaning. It is possible to choose between actor voice and synthetic voice.
According to the context, it is possible to offer subtitling for learners who are hard of hearing or do not have access to sound.
The characteristics of both types of voice are as follows:
• Actor voice: studio recording; modulation of the voice (actor); difficulties (cost) to modify or add a voice
• Synthetic voice: recording through software from text file; limited modulation, easy to modify or add a voice